Evidence of Red Wolves in the Ouachita Mountains

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Evidence of Red Wolves in the Ouachita Mountains

 By Brandon Lentz

The published story of the red wolf (Canis rufus) begins in the late 1700s. Naturalist William Bartram spent much of the 1770s exploring the wilds of Florida, keeping meticulous notes of the flora and fauna he observed. In 1791, his notes were compiled and published into a book now known as Bartram’s Travels. Bartram described wolves that displayed taxonomic differences from the wolves that lived in other parts of the continent, namely color variance. He reported observing a pack of wild canids that exhibited black, white, and spotted coats. He surmised the animals were a subspecies of the gray wolf, and dubbed them Canis lupus niger.



Tag 7

The North American Wood Ape Conservancy developed and implemented a novel technique for attaching radio telemetry devices without first capturing, manually tagging, then releasing the target species. This self-tagging technique was specifically designed to track the locations and movement of a hypothesized, as yet scientifically unrecognized, primate species inhabiting the Ouachita Mountain Ecoregion. One tag was successfully activated in August 2015. Locational information acquired over the ensuing months through June 2016, using airborne and ground search teams, indicated the tag was attached to a highly mobile individual ranging over an area of extremely rough and mountainous terrain encompassing approximately 115 km². This study represents the first time quantifiable data can be applied to issues pertaining to movement and home range of the putative species. This method provides a significant advance that is applicable to studies of relictual hominoids elsewhere. 

Download the NAWAC's paper about Tag 7 here.

Listen to the NAWAC's podcast: Apes Among Us: Tag 7.  




Ouachita Project Monograph


Ouachita Project Monograph

The mission of the North American Wood Ape Conservancy is to facilitate official recognition and conservation of what it believes is a rare unlisted North American anthropoid species. Pursuant to those objectives, the organization has focused its time and resources in the Ouachita Mountain Ecoregion, dispatching teams to conduct prolonged searches and document all pertinent observations in a location with a history of reported sightings of large ape-like creatures.

The investigations, conducted over the course of four years, ranged from sixty to one hundred twenty days in duration, and produced observations, evidence, and information thought to be significant, though not definitive to the point of validating the existence of a native North American anthropoid species. Some of the more notable thoughts and impressions recorded by scores of NAWAC team members are described and discussed in the Ouachita Project monograph.

Download the monograph here: Ouachita Project Monograph — Version 1.1 (PDF, 5.2 MB)

Frequently Asked Questions
Following release of the Ouachita Project Monograph to the public, we have found that certain questions repeatedly come up regarding our approach, observations, and conclusions. In an effort to more efficiently address these questions, we've created this FAQ. If you have additional questions you think may be worth addressing, please feel free to contact us.

Revision History
Initial release, 3 March 2015
Version 1.1, 12 March 2015 — Updated to reflect confirmation of results from DNA test to hair samples (page 102), elaboration on alternative sources of rock impacts (page 63), clarification of the length of time the security system was in place (page 156), as well as correction of various typos.

Here's a flyover video shot in June, 2014, that provides a feeling for the denseness of the surrounding area.


The audio files below (provided to illustrate the kinds of events described in the paper) were recorded during the Ouachita Project using TASCAM DR-40 and Marantz PMD670 digital recorders, and Sennheiser MKE102S/K6 omni-directional microphones. All but one of the recordings were made in the very early morning hours while team members were asleep or were on overwatch. These files have been amplified and equalized, and in a few cases edited for the sake of brevity and file size. They were culled from literally thousands of hours of audio and are only a small representation of the total audio recorded by the NAWAC during the Ouachita Project. They are all in the WAV audio file format.

Audio clip 1: A wood knock just before dawn right outside the cabin.

Audio clip 2: A rock hits the cabin then a very loud wood knock.

Audio clip 3: Huffs then a rock is thrown onto cabin and rolls around.

Audio clip 4: Huffs then a rock hits the cabin.

Audio clip 5: More huffing before a rock slams the cabin.

Audio clip 6: A whistle, shuffling, huffing, and a rock.

Audio clip 7: Huffs, rock through the trees, slams cabin, then bounces onto the ground.

Audio clip 8: Single huff, then rock zips through trees and pounds cabin.

Audio clip 9: A rock rips through tree limbs and then falls short of the cabin thumping the ground.

Audio clip 10: While the team is talking in front of the cabin around the fire circle, a rock flies through trees and strikes the cabin.

Audio clip 11: A rock hits the loose corrugated metal on the shed and bounces.

Audio clip 12: The so-called “rain of rocks.” While the team lay in bed asleep, the cabin was repeatedly struck by rocks on the roof, and on two walls, including a porch. It went on for several minutes. This is the abridged version.

Audio clip 13: What team members refer to as a “mouth pop,” or "click," documented many times in the field.

Audio clip 14: A recording from NAWAC field audio of what could be “faux speech.”


Area X Presentation From Beachfoot 20

Bob Strain, a North American Wood Ape Conservancy member living in California, recently made a presentation on Area X at the annual Beachfoot conferece. 

Spacial thanks to Rictor Riolo for creating and editing the video.


NAWAC Expands Areas of Investigation

The North American Wood Ape Conservancy today announces an expansion of the areas in which the group operates. Previously, the group was active in the original four state region of Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas. With today's announcement, the group has created the following operational regions:

Northeast Southeast West
  • Maine
  • Massachusetts
  • New Hampshire
  • New York
  • Vermont 
  • Alabama
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • West Virginia
  • California
  • Nevada
 South-Central  Upper-Midwest  Rocky Mountains
  • Arkansas
  • Louisiana
  • Oklahoma
  • Texas
  • Iowa
  • Michigan (Upper Peninsula)
  • Minnesota
  • North Dakota
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Colorado

Operations in these regions will include investigation of received encounter reports including on-site visits (if necessary or deemed appropriate), field work in areas of potential wood ape habitat, member development activities, and educational opportunities aimed at the general public. 
These regions are formed around groups of NAWAC members who, through field work and completion of other prerequisite efforts, have achieved investigator status within the organization. The NAWAC only publishes encounter reports that minimally include a witness interview by an investigator. Many times, the group will also conduct an on-site investigation of the encounter. Being able to travel to and back from these sites in a reasonable amount of time greatly dictated which states were included in each region.

Membership of the group has expanded significantly in the past few years and with it has come individuals of great talent, dedication, and ability who have shown themselves to be qualified investigators. Individuals interested in membership to the group can submit an application here


Testing of Game Cameras for Sound Emissions


The North American Wood Ape Conservancy sent game cameras to a bioacoustics lab to determine whether or not the cameras produce detectable audio emissions potentially capable of deterring wildlife from approaching the vicinity of the cameras.



Commentary: Regarding the Wood Ape and Vocalization


[A couple of months after the publication of Testing of Game Cameras for Sound Emissions at the NAWAC web site, Dr. Martin Lenhardt, who supervised the game camera tests, contacted us again. After he noted, “Jane Goodall thinks there may be something to this story,” Dr. Lenhardt asked if we had “access to any sounds this guy makes?” The following reflections were offered in response to receiving recordings of possible North American wood ape vocalizations.]



Ape Appellations


Over many centuries numerous appellations have been ascribed to the huge hairy hominoids said to inhabit North America, “Bigfoot” being one of the more widely used in recent decades. In his opening address at the 2013 Texas Bigfoot Conference, Brian Brown first announced the TBRC move to officially change its name to the North American Wood Ape Conservancy and the rationale behind the NAWAC decision to largely cease using the media moniker “Bigfoot” when referring to the species (Brown, 2013a).



Possible Wood Ape Photos From Central Oklahoma

The following is an abridged version of an article that has been submitted to The Relic Hominoid Inquiry provisionally entitled “Photographs of a Possible Unrecognized Bipedal Hominoid From Oklahoma.”



Taking a Stand With Science: Sasquatches, Humans, and Apes

Recently, famed author and journalist John Green gave the North American Wood Ape Conservancy permission to publish the final chapter of his seminal book Sasquatch: The Apes Among Us. In it, he lays out the case that wood apes, or sasquatches, are not human or human-like and that the collection of a type specimen is necessary. Many of us here at the NAWAC agree with Green. It is our position that until and unless wood apes are firmly and finally established as living animals that the real work of protecting and conserving them – the very heart of our mission statement – cannot begin. We felt that Green's words were some of clearest and most convincing we've read, even if they are from 1978.



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